How to Create Stone or Concrete Walkways and Patio

Materials Required:

  • Road Crush (¾”)
  • Sand and a straight board
  • Shovel
  • Level
  • Stakes
  • String
  • Tamper
  • Paving stones or sidewalk blocks
  • Edging material for wood/concrete (usually made of plastic or metal)

Procedure:

  1. Outline the project area using stakes and string.
  1. Calculate the total project surface area by multiplying its length (ft.) by its width (ft.). The result will be in square feet.
  1. Calculate the number of stones/blocks you will need:
    1. Determine the total surface area of a stone/block by multiplying the length (in.) of one of the stones/blocks by its width (in.). The result will be in square inches.
    1. Ensure that all measurements are in the same unit. Convert square inches to square feet by dividing square inches by 144.
    1. Determine how many stones/blocks you will require by dividing the total project surface area by the total surface area of a stone/block. 
    1. The addition of extra stones/blocks for trimming is recommended. To calculate the recommended number of stones/blocks required, multiply the number of required stones/blocks by 1.05 or 1.1.
  1. Clear and level the marked area to a depth that will allow for a road crush base of 4-6 inches, a ½-1 inch layer of sand on top of the base, plus the depth of a stone/block.
  1. Apply a 2 inch layer of road crush to the project area and use the tamper to compact it. Ensure it is level before applying another 2 inch layer. Repeat this process until your base is completed.
  1. Install the edging material.
  1. Apply the ½-1 inch layer of sand on top of the base.
  1. Drag a straight board across the area to level out the sand. This process is called “screeding.”
  1. Lay the stones/blocks over the area. Start at an edge and ensure that the stones’/blocks’ edges are flush with each other and against the edging material. Step on the stones as you lay them to keep from disturbing the sand layer and check periodically to ensure that the area remains level and the rows remain straight. 
  1. Trim stones/blocks to fit the area.
  1. Cover the area with sand and use the tamper to set the stones/blocks.
  1. Sweep the sand into the joints between stones/blocks to lock them into place.