Affecting Evergreens

Aphids
Aphid
Description:
Pear-shaped, soft bodied insects; can we winged or wingless. Most commonly green but can be black, dark brown, yellow, white, bronze, red or pink.

 

Damage:
Suck sap while feeding on leaves, stems or roots. Can be found on growing tips, undersides of leaves, along stems and in roots.

 

Signs
Reduction in plant vigour; wilting and distortion of plant tissue - curled, puckered or distorted growth. Excrete honeydew, a sticky fluid that can lead to sooty mold development and also attracts ants, wasps and other flies. In some cases can cause red blistering on leaves.

 

What it attacks
All evergreens

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Pine Needle Scale
Description:
Tiny, white flattened scale insects.

 

Damage:
Suck sap from the needles.

 

Signs
Yellow mottling, localized discoloration, premature needle drop and dieback of branches.

 

What it attacks:
Most evergreens

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Sawflies
Scott Tunnock, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Description:
Resemble caterpillar but have at least six pairs of legs; usually light green with a dark head.

 

Damage:
Feed on needles - defoliate branches.

 

Signs
Defoliate branches; cause stress which can make plants vulnerable to other pests and diseases.

 

What it attacks:
Spruce, larch, cedar and pine

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Spider mites
Spider mites
Description:
Tiny rounded eight-legged insect.

 

Damage:
Puncture leaf and suck out both water and food producing green chlorophyll.

 

Signs
Needles become speckled with yellow blotches; stippling and dotting on needles; needles look dirty; fine webbing on needles and branches; reduces vigour.

 

What it attacks:
All evergreens

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Spruce Budworm
USDA Forest Service - Northeastern Area Archive, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Description:
Yellow to purple-brown caterpillar with white spots and a dark brown head.

 

Damage:
Larvae tunnel into buds and feed on developing buds and needles; feed on newly emerged growth. In severe cases extensive defoliation can occur.

 

Signs
Defoliation of new growth, reduction in plant vigour, increased stress making plants susceptible to attack by other pests and diseases.

 

What it attacks:
Spruce, fir and Douglas Fir

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Spruce Gall Aphid
Edward H. Holsten, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Description:
Pear-shaped, woolly, white soft-bodied insects.

 

Damage:
Cause the formation of galls at the tips of the branches on new growth. Galls emerge green, turn purple and then eventually brown.

 

Signs
Yellowing and distortion of needles, galls cause tip kill.

 

What it attacks:
Spruce, Pine, Larch, Fir

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White Pine Weevil
Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Description:
White legless larvae with light brown heads; adult is a dark brown beetle with a prominent snout.

 

Damage:
Larvae feed under the bark of the trees terminal leader (top of the tree), eventually girdling the stem.

 

Signs
The leader wilts and dies suddenly in the summer. Top of the tree may resemble a shepherd's crook.

 

What it attacks:
Spruce and pine

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